Roman law differed from canon law in not prosecuting same-sex sex-acts unless an adult male allowed himself to be penetrated by an inferior eg. DR FEROS RUYS: In terms of likeness, I would say that our approach to prostitution up to the very present has remained very similar to that of the Middle Ages; namely, that although prostitution might be considered undesirable in an ideal world, it was recognized as necessary within social structures as they were, in order to protect and safeguard other women. How much of a role did the Church have? Indeed, older married couples were sometimes encouraged to separate and enter monastic houses, living out the remainder of their lives as monks and nuns. Not only did men and women commit themselves to celibate lives within monastic contexts either becoming monks and nuns, or living a celibate life within a community that was not under a particular monastic rule, chastity even invaded the concept of marriage. Dissolving a marriage on account of sexual incompatibility however was difficult: if the marriage had ever been consummated, even once, then subsequent sexual impotence was not considered sufficient grounds to end the marriage even if the husband argued that he was only impotent with his wife and could perform sexually with other women. DR FEROS RUYS: The interesting thing is that although regulations governing sexuality appeared to be very strict in the medieval period, they were at least gender equal and there was not the sort of double standard in play that we are familiar with from later periods. For example, when wealthy families betrothed a child but then later reconsidered and wanted to make a better marriage: was the betrothal binding? DR FEROS RUYS: I think the ideas of no sex before marriage, deterrence of masturbation, uneasiness over homosexuality, and the concern with fidelity in marriage by both men and women can be seen as a medieval Christian legacy that continued to be strongly influential on society up until the later decades of the twentieth century. There simply was not this concept in the Middle Ages. These questions were constantly under discussion in the high Middle Ages, and obviously had a huge impact on dynastic considerations. InfoCoBuild The Universe Season 3 The Universe is a History Channel documentary series exploring the wonders of the universe and the advanced physics concepts in the fields of cosmology, astronomy and astrophysics. For instance, if a couple ran off into the woods and pledged their eternal love and consummated the relationship, did this constitute a legal marriage? Procreative sex was not to be enjoyed and enjoyment vitiated its procreative intent. Women could petition the court to return to them a husband who had left and gone to live with another woman. This was where a man could abduct a woman one who owned or whose family owned property, say , force sexual intercourse on her, then demand marriage with her, and consequently, gain title to her lands and wealth.